Initial evaluation of tinnitus should include a thorough history, head and neck examination, and audiometric testing to identify an underlying etiology. Unilateral or pulsatile tinnitus may be caused by more serious pathology and typically merits specialized audiometric testing and radiologic studies. Various clinical evaluation instruments, as identified above, can be used to characterize a subjective diagnosis and evaluate the severity of tinnitus. The complex relationships between tinnitus and a range of physical and mental health conditions have complicated the development and evaluation of intervention strategies. Comorbidities such as hearing loss, mental health problems, or sleep disorders may modulate the experience of tinnitus and direct treatment of those conditions may help to alleviate reactions to tinnitus.